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List of Antibiotics

The list is divided into several charts with each chart containing one of the classes. Where applicable, antibiotics within one class are grouped by generations. We also show the year when the antibiotic first has enetered the market.

History of Antibiotic Discovery

Year Introduced Class
1935 Sulfonamides
1941 Penicillins
1944 Aminoglycosides
1945 Cephalosporins
1949 Chloramphenicol
1950 Tetracyclines
1952 Macrolides
1956 Glycopeptides
1957 Rifamycins
1959 Nitroimidiazoles
1962 Quinolones
1968 Trimethoprim
1998 Streptogramins
2000 Oxazolidinones
2003 Lipopeptides

Beta-lactam antibiotics

Penicillins

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
Amoxicillin Amoxil, Polymox 1974
Ampicillin Omnipen, Polycillin, Polycillin-N, Principen, Totacillin 1965
Bacampicillin Spectrobid 1980
Carbenicillin Geocillin, Geopen 1972
Cloxacillin Cloxapen, 1974
Dicloxacillin Dynapen, Dycill, Pathocil 1968
Flucloxacillin Flopen, Floxapen, Staphcillin  
Mezlocillin Mezlin  
Nafcillin Nafcil, Nallpen, Unipen 1965
Oxacillin Bactocill, Prostaphlin 1971
Penicillin G Bicillin L-A,
Crysticillin 300 A.S., Pentids, Permapen, Pfizerpen, Pfizerpen-AS, Wycillin
1947
Penicillin V Beepen-VK, Betapen-VK, Ledercillin VK, Pen Vee K, V-Cillin K, Veetids 1968
Piperacillin Pipracil 1981
Pivampicillin    
Pivmecillinam    
Ticarcillin Ticar 1976

Cephalosporins

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
First generation Cephalosporins    
Cephalexin Keflex, Keftab 1971
Cefadroxil Duricef, Ultracef 1978
Cephradine Velosef 1974
Cefazolin Ancef, Kefzol 1973
Cephapirin Cefadyl  
Second generation Cephalosporins    
Cefaclor Ceclor, Ceclor CD, Ranicor 1979
Cefamandole Mandol 1978
Cefonicid Monocid  
Cefotetan Cefotan 1985
Cefoxitin Mefoxin 1978
Cefpodoxime Vantin 1992
Cefprozil Cefzil 1991
Cefuroxime Ceftin, Kefurox, Zinacef 1983
Third generation Cephalosporins    
Cefixime Suprax 1989
Cefdinir Omnicef 1997
Cefoperazone Cefobid 1982
Cefotaxime Claforan 1981
Ceftazidime Ceptaz, Fortaz, Tazicef, Tazidime 1985
Ceftibuten Cedax 1995
Ceftizoxime Cefizox 1983
Ceftriaxone Rocephin 1984
Cefditoren Cefditoren, Spectracef 2001
Ceftazidime Fortum, Fortaz 1985
Fourth generation Cephalosporins    
Cefepime Maxipime 1996
Fifth generation Cephalosporins    
Ceftobiprole Zeftera, Zevtera Discontinued
Carbacephem    
Loracarbef Lorabid 1991

Carbapenems

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
Imipenem Primaxin (cilastatin/imipenem) 1985
Meropenem Merrem, Meronem 1996
Doripenem Doribax 2007
Ertapenem Invanz 2001

Monobactams

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
Aztreonam Azactam 1986


Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS) Group

Macrolides

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
Azithromycin Zithromax 1991
Erythromycin Erythrocin, EES 1964
Clarithromycin Biaxin 1991
Dirithromycin Dynabac 1995
Roxithromycin Rulid, Surlid  
Ketolides    
Telithromycin Ketek 2004
Cethromycin    
Solithromycin    

Lincosamides

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
Clindamycin Cleocin, Dalacin 1980
Lincomycin Lincocin 1964

Streptogramins

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
Pristinamycin Synercid, Pyostacine  
Quinupristin/dalfopristin Synercid 1999


Tetracyclines

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
Doxycycline Doryx, Vibramycin 1967
Minocycline Dynacin, Minocin, Monodox 1971
Oxytetracycline Terramycin 1964
Tetracycline Achromycin 1953
Glycylcycline    
Tigecycline Tygacil 2005

Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
First generation (Quinolones)    
Nalidixic acid NegGram 1964
Cinoxacin Cinobac  
Second generation    
Ciprofloxacin Cipro, Ciprobay 1987
Enoxacin Penetrex 1991
Lomefloxacin Maxaquin 1992
Norfloxacin Noroxin 1986
Ofloxacin Floxin 1990
Third generation    
Gatifloxacin Zigat, Tequin 1999
Levofloxacin Levaquin 1996
Moxifloxacin Avelox,Vigamox 1999
Sparfloxacin Zagam 1996
Fourth generation    
Clinafloxacin    
Gemifloxacin Factive 2003
Trovafloxacin Trovan 1997

Aminoglycosides

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
Amikacin Amikin 1981
Gentamicin Garamycin, G-Mycin, Jenamicin 1979
Kanamycin Kantrex 1973
Neomycin Mycifradin, Myciguent 1964
Netilmicin Netromycin  
Paromomycin Humatin 1969
Streptomycin   1946
Tobramycin Nebcin, Tobrex 1980

Sulfonamides

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
Sulfamethizole Thiosulfil Forte  
Sulfamethoxazole Gantanol, Urobak 1978
Sulfisoxazole Gantrisin 1953
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Cotrim, Cotrim DS, Septra, Septra DS, Sulfatrim, Sulfatrim-DS 1973

Glycopeptides

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
Teicoplanin Targocid  
Vancomycin Vancocin 1964
Lipoglycopeptide    
Telavancin Vibativ 2009

Other classes of antibiotics

Generic Name Brand Name FDA Approval
Chloramphenicol Chloromycetin 1950
Nitroimidazoles    
Metronidazole Flagyl, Helidac, Metizol, Metric 21, Metro Cream, Metrogel, Neo-Metric, Noritate, Novonidazol 1963
Tinidazole Tindamax, Fasigyn, Simplotan, Sporinex 2004
Nitrofurans    
Furazolidone Furoxone, Dependal-M 1958
Nitrofurantoin Macrodantin, Macrobid 1953
Lincosamines    
Lincomycin   1964
Lipopeptides    
Daptomycin Cubicin 2003
Rifamycins    
Rifampin (Rifampicin, Rifaldazine, Rifamycin) Rifadin, Rimactane 1971
Rifapentine Priftin 1998
Rifabutin Mycobutin 1992
Oxazolidinones    
Linezolid Zyvox 2000
Pleuromutilins    
Retapamulin Altabax, Altargo 2007

References:

  • 1. King DE, Malone R, Lilley SH. New Classification and Update on the Quinolone Antibiotics. Am Fam Physician. 2000 May 1;61(9):2741-2748. Full text
  • 2. IDAS's 2004 Report PDF

Created: February, 2012
Last Updated: May, 2012



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